IBF and Seafarers

What IBF ( The International Bargaining Forum) does for seafarers?

Maritime industry is a unique multinational industry, where standardization of pay is paramount to protect seafarers. Therefore The International Bargaining Forum (IBF) was established in 2003, for collective bargaining of wages and condition of employment in the marine industry. Below are 4 major workings of IBF;

Pay Negotiation – International Seafarers’ wages varies according to nationalities. The fixing of wages is long process and represented by main stakeholders; IBF (International Bargaining Forum), which includes Joint Negotiation Group as employers’ representative and ITF as seafarers’ representative. Once the IBF negotiations are concluded, Joint Negotiation Group** representatives visit the principal labor supply and ship owning countries to negotiate the application of the settlement at local level. That is the reason of large difference in pay structure and benefits of seafarers of different countries.

IBF High Risk Area crew entitlements- Since 2008 the IBF designated an IBF High Risk Area, seafarers are in Internationally Recommended Transit Corridor (IRTC) are entitled to special allowances as per IBF recommendation. This recommends 100% additional basic wages and all compensation payable are doubled. Last update on IBF list was published on 16th December 2015.

The IBF Seafarers’ Support Fund – It was created exclusively to support the welfare of seafarers. A part of ITF Assistance, Welfare and Protection Fund is paid to this fund. JNG members contribute to this fund through ITF fund and it is utilized for welfare of seafarers, especially towards MLC 2006.

Seafarers’ Employment Promotion Fund – US$10 per month is contributed by every IMEC member, (it can be different for other JNG members) to Seafarers’ Employment Promotion Fund for every seafarer serving on an IBF registered vessel. This fund is utilized for training and development of seafarers and companies can ask for up to 90% grant from SEP. See the summary of Funds.

Who are members of JNG, Joint Negotiation Group?

JNG members’ main job is Seafarers wage negotiation; assisting employers with updated legislations about seafarers’ employment; promote good employment practice and many more to help employers and seafarers. Below are the members;

  1. The International Maritime Employers’ Council (IMEC) – 200 companies, 11,000 vessels, 290,000 seafarers, 68 different nationalities.
  2. International Maritime Managers’ Association of Japan – 97 companies , 2,335 vessels with 47,664 seafarers
  3. Evergreen – 190 ships
  4. Korean Shipowners’ Association- 193 companies, 11000seafarers (2014 figure)

Source – IBF, IMMA Japan, IMEC

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New conventions and amendments 1st July 2016.

Below are 2 new conventions and amendments which are expected to enter into force from 1st July 2016.

1 July 2016 – SOLAS – container weight verification
Amendments to SOLAS chapter VI. This was long pending issue and considered major cause of instability on container ship; or even severe accidents.

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Wrong declaration of cargo weight in container is very common, which helps shipper to save some freight cost, however if 1000’s of containers has wrong weight then one can imagine what will be the cumulative effect on ship’s stability. Master calculates ship’s stability as per documents provided by planner, planner has documents from shipper and at present there is no verification method in place to get the correct weight (Maximum gross weight is 32480kg) of each container whether it is 20′, 40′ or 45′ normal or high cube.
So this amendment will require mandatory verification of the gross mass of each containers. There are few possible methods, either by weighing the packed container fully, or all packages to be weighed at the time of stuffing. Now a competent authority must verify the cargo weight. at the time of packing the container.
Weighing containers at the time of loading at terminal is another verification where each container will be weighed during loading on board. This facility is not provided on all ports and needs huge investments to modify all cranes.

1 July 2016 – SOLAS -atmosphere testing

Amendments to add a new SOLAS regulation XI-1/7 on Atmosphere testing instrument for enclosed spaces, to require ships to carry an appropriate portable atmosphere testing instrument, it should be capable of measuring concentrations of oxygen, flammable gases or vapours, hydrogen sulphide and carbon monoxide, prior to entry into enclosed spaces.

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Famous marine salvages

The legal concept that a marine salvor is entitled to a reward for the saving of imperilled marine property has been a recognized part of the admiralty law for more than 3,000 years.

SALCON 89 – International convention on Salvage 1989, replaced an old salvage convention adopted in Brussels in 1910, there was “‘no cure, no pay” principle earlier, means a salvor is only rewarded for services if the operation is successful. New 1989 Convention, introduced “special compensation” to be paid to salvors who have failed to earn a reward in the normal way (i.e. by salving the ship and cargo). Special Compensation is additional payment of 30 to 100% of the salvor’s expenses, which is for their effort to save environment, marine life, human health and resources, which were unrecognised earlier.

Myth – The law of salvage is a concept in maritime law which states that a person who recovers another person’s ship or cargo after peril or loss at sea is entitled to a reward commensurate with the value of the property so saved.

Fact – Even when a vessel is “abandoned” and left without intention to return or hope of recovery, the vessel remains the property of her owner absent some affirmative act by the owner which clearly and convincingly establishes a positive intent on the part of the owner to part with ownership.

Slide2Many salvage operations have been undertaken over the century, these numbers are more than what people hoped for. Some of them are famous because of name attached to it.

 

 

 

 

Titanic
The wreck was found in 1985, 73 years after the ship sank, now the ship structure is so fragile that it cannot be salvaged, however salvagers has recovered many artifacts from within the ship.
In 1985, a joint American-French expedition discovered the wreck of the Titanic in the North Atlantic Ocean in international waters. Two years later, Titanic Ventures, a limited partnership, explored the wreck, bringing up approximately 1,800 artifacts. Thereafter, it sold its interests in the salvage operations and the artifacts to RMST.
In 1993, RMST commenced this in rem action against the Titanic to become its salvor-in-possession.

German Fleet in Scapa Flow
It is the biggest salvage operation in the history. After the end of World War I, Germans decided to scuttle their fleet to avoid being seized by Allies. There were 74 German ships in Scapa Flow, Scotland, UK after WWI, waiting for their fate after surrender, on German commander’s order all were planned to scuttle (puncturing the hull by opening sea valves, opening port holes etc). On 21st June 1919, 52 warships out of 74 warships were scuttled, and these became biggest wreck in the history. New salvage technique was developed, hull were patched, air was pumped in to make the ship rise to the surface. One of the salvage operation was costing £30000, about 45 ships were salvaged in next 20 years. 7 wrecks are still there and designated as monuments, used by divers for underwater tourism.

Pearl Harbor
7th December 1941, Japan sank 5 battleships, 2 destroyers, a target ship and a mine layer of American Navy at Pearl Harbor. Within 6 months US Navy refloated 5 ships and 2 cruisers by patching holes and pumping out water. Later, 20000 underwater man-hours were spent for another year to salvage remaining ships, which were not successful. It was one of the most difficult salvage operations in history.

Costa Concordia
114,500-ton cruise ship Costa Concordia capsized at island of Giglio in January 2012, killing 32 people. Ship was turned upright and secured to an artificial platform after a massive salvage operation in September 2013, in May 2014 she was towed 240-km to Genoa.
Submerged platform and around 30 buoyancy tanks were used to refloat and tow the ship, it was the largest salvage operation ever attempted, and the most expensive, at a cost of $1.5 billion so far.

Kursk,
12th August 2000, Russian nuclear submarine Kursk sank in the Barents Sea due to an internal explosion, it led to death of 118 sailors and officers. It had 2 nuclear reactor, so eliminating this hazard was necessary. In 2001A portion of the destroyed submarine was raised to the surface in October 2001 to recover the bodies and eliminate the hazard from the Kursk’s two nuclear reactors.
Cost of Salvation was USD 65mn,it took 5 months to refloat the submarine wreck.

Cougar Ace
In July 2006, Cougar Ace,of MOL, was packed with 4,700 Mazda cars and Isuzu trucks for North-American market, value of cars was 117 million. The ship was bound from Japan to Vancouver, Canada when a ballast operation caused 60degree list to ship.
Ship[ was rightened on 16th August 2006, the salvage team, TITAN had to work solidly for 24 days straight to try and save the vessel and its extremely lucrative cargo.
Only 46 cars were damaged during this incident, however Mazda announced scrapping of all cars; till 2008 all cars were scrapped.  

Besides cumbersome efforts and innovative techniques there are certain equipment which are commonly used for modern salvage operations;

  • High viscosity hydraulic pumps to transfer/ pump out highly viscous fuel oil to be used
  • High power winches – installed on barge or another vessel
  • Air baloons, or air bags, sponsons to give additional buoyancy
  • Underwater cutting equipments –usually hydraulically operated, it can be custom made for the purpose and made of tunguston carbide tip or dimond tip tools.
  • Floating crane, barge, tug boats
  • Diving team
  • Wire ropes, chains etc
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Selection of right fasteners

In many cases fastener failure has caused severe accidents on ships; causing fire, flooding and even loss of life. On board, general fasteners shouldn’t be used in machineries, when overhauling a machinery, sometimes it is necessary to replace fasteners like, bolts, nuts and screws; however in urgency or due to ignorance it is not checked whether new fastener is of correct specification or not. Do we ever consider checking strength requirement of a fastener for particular use?

In single machinery there may be various grades of fasteners used depending upon the force and temperature it should withstand. Ordinary bolts without grade must not be used for pressure parts, high temperature parts or rotating or running parts, it would certainly fail due to poor strength. Grades are marked on bolts, nuts, and hexagon screws as shown in these pictures, if there is no marking then it should be assumed that the fastener grade is of ordinary mild steel and should not be used on machinery. Bolts received in general store without specifications are usually ordinary bolts and are only suitable for general purpose fastening. For machinery, minimum 4.6 metric grade should be used, for higher strength grade 8.8 to be used, grade 12.6 to be used on exhaust pipes or high temperature equipment. Grade 12.6 is usually the highest grade of fastener used on board.

Many accidents, breakdowns and machinery failure occur when improper fasteners are used. Therefore it is prudent to check proper grade of fasteners before replacing it. Below information is helpful when managing fasteners on board, specially for pressure vessel, pressure pipes, assembling 2 stroke or 4 stroke engines, fuel pumps, exhaust manifold parts, boiler parts, couplings, pumps and many more;

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What should be the torque when tightening fasteners?
Once fasteners are chosen correctly then the next precaution is to use correct tightening torque, below formula is basic for applying correct torque;

Torque = K x d x F
(Example – For M16, grade 8.8 bolt, in lubricated condition, K=0.15, torque recommended is 120 ft-lbs or 162 N-M)
K = Nut Factor, (Non-plated, black finish 0.20 – 0.30, Lubricated 0.12 – 0.16)
d = Nominal Bolt Diameter (in., mm, etc.)
F = Bolt Tension (lbs., N); F = 75% of bolt material proof load for standard bolts.

(Source: Fastenal, technical reference guide.)

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Shore staff – 2015 Job concerns

The 7th maritime employee survey carried out by Halcyon Recruitment and online training provider Coracle, which includes 3000 respondents from various backgrounds of  brokers, charterers, traders, senior management, technical, HSEQ, P&I, legal, insurance, vessel operators, liner trades, HR, crewing, admin, finance etc.

The result shows that the majority of shore based employees across the shipping sector believe that the most satisfying factors for employee are; relationship with manager, followed by reputation of employer. Promotion prospect and training opportunity are least satisfying in current job.  Salary, work life balance, job security, benefit packages are of medium satisfaction, however when changing jobs, 60% of employees always look for health cover as a must have benefit.

Most of the employees are lacking in training and development opportunities. Lack of salary increases, promotion potential, training and development opportunities, will cause increased staff turnover, so employer should emphasize more on needs of training and development, to make employee more productive and satisfying .
Some of the facts of this survey are;  

  • Technical department, 69% of respondents received a bonus in the last 12 months vs 46% in 2013, this shows an on-going shortage of technical personnel.
  •  Only 47% of total respondents had their basic salary rise, and only 58% received a bonus in the last 12 months.
  • Asia continues are leaders in terms of salary increases and bonus payments.
  •  Singapore is the most attractive location from a work/life perspective with 23% of participants favouring this location, followed by England and Northern Europe.
  • When considering a career move, salary ranks highest in terms of importance, replacing work/life balance from last year 2014.
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Shipping confidence level

As per shipping adviser Moore Stephens, overall confidence levels in the shipping industry fell in the three months to November 2015, it is hovering at lowest level since this survey was started in the year 2008. Facts of this shipping confident survey are as below;

This survey is carried out every 3 months and results published, it was first published in May 2008 and latest published in the month of November 2015.
Owners, brokers, charterers, managers, advisers and others, these are the main categories of which respondents are surveyed.
This survey is divided into regions as Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, South America and Rest of the world.
Performance factors of this survey are; Demand trends, Finance costs, Operating costs, Tonnage supply, Fuel costs, Crew supply, Regulation and Port congestion.
The confidence level is measured between 1 (low) to 10 (high).

As per November shipping confidence level, overall confidence level has gone down from 5.9 in Aug2015 to 5.6 in Nov 2015. The confidence of charterers was down from 6.5 to 5.5,  managers from 6.4 to 5.8, brokers from 5.2 to 4.6, and that of owners from 5.8 to 5.7.  Some peaks in confidence level reported in May 2008 (6.8), May 2010 (6.3), Feb 2014 (6.5) and major dips were in Feb 2009 (5.4), Aug 2011(5.3), Aug 2012(5.3) and May 2015 (5.3).

As compared to 2008 performance factor shows that Operational cost has come down from 12% to 6%, Crew cost down from 11% to 5%, Regulation cost up from 2% to 9%.

The net sentiment was nevertheless positive (+7) in the tanker market and in the dry bulk sector (+16), although negative (-5) for container ships.

Please read more here.

 

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Smartphone apps for seafarers

There are 1.6 million apps in Google play  and 1.5 million in Apple app store, Amazon App store has 0.4million and Window phone store has 0.34 million apps. But for seafarers,  there are 10 free Smartphone apps , which every seafarers  must have.

1 .Anti-Shipping Activity Message (ASAM) App – Get news and messages about shipping piracy.  Data can eb downloaded and later it can be viewed  without a Wi-Fi or cellular connection. Go to ASAM.

2. First Aid Apps – This is general First aid by American and British Red Cross. But most suitable for seafarers due to nature of duty.  First Aid – American Red Cross.

3. ReCAAP Anti-Piracy App – This app provides timely alert of any piracy Incident Alert and reports.  ReCAAP

4. Port State Inspections Pocket Checklists App – This checklist provides in assisting crew and shore staff to ensure that the vessel complies with regulatory requirement and hence always ready for 3rd party inspection. The checklist APP.

5. Currency Converter – Nothing to say about it, because every end of month all have eyes on it, and one can estimate what would be the exact amount of remittance. Live currency Converter

6. Marpol Pocket Checklist – Besides Port state inspection checklist, there is MARPOL checklist, to ensure all MARPOL related equipment are in perfect condition and vessel complies with it’s requirement. The Check list.

7. Marine Fire Safety Pocket Checklist – This is suitable for safety inspectors or master who wants to prepare for safety inspection. It is mainly related to certificates, documents and international requirement as per convention.  The Checklist.

8. TripAdvisor – It will help in finding near by restaurants, hotels , pubs during sign on, off or shore leave. The recommended locations are really worth visiting without loosing time in finding new places.

9. Wifi Finder App –  This is my favourite and best App. Wi-Fi finder app helps in quickly and easily finding FREE or paid WiFi zones when travelling. All the locations can be downloaded offline and stay connected when you are on the road.  The GPS of your mobile let you know the location and the way to reach to the location. Wifi finder.

10. Pacifica – This  related to your mental and physical health, due to increasing workload stress and anxiety is on the rise on board ships, the Pacifica mobile app teaches deep breathing and behavioural exercises; identifies your negative thinking and changes it to positive thinking. One can see his progress on it, try it.  Think Pacifica.

Source – Statista2015 and newsaccess.

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China ECA – A new addition to ECA

DNV-GL-China-new-sulphur-requirements-2015_12China’s Ministry of Environmental Protection data shows that SO2 and NOx emissions from ships accounted for 8.4% and 11.3%, respectively, of China’s total emissions. So country had to work on it and they have planned to reduce SO2 emission by 65% by 2020.
There is now a new addition to ECA area, it is Chinese ECA (Emission Control Area. Major shipping hubs has been included in this control area (called district). Transport Ministry on December 4 issued the esablishment of ship emissions control area (ECA) in the Pearl River Delta, Yangtze River Delta and the Bohai three waters.
Ministry of transport has issued The Ship and Port Pollution Prevention Special Action Plan 2015-2020, on September 8. It aims to reduce No2 by 20%, and other particulate matter by 30% compared to the stats from 2015.

Timeline –

  1. From 1st January 2019 – 0.5% Sulphur fuel to be used for the vessel plying in these areas.
  2. From 1st January 2016 – 11 key ports in this area are allowed to implement same requirement. Shanghai seems to be ready to implement this requirement.
  3. From 1st January 2017 – Above rule will become mandatory for these above ports.
  4. End of 2019 – Review of situation to consider 0.1% Sulphur limit.

As alternative, shore power on terminals, exhaust gas scrubber and LNG as primary gas will be in accepted.

DNV-GL-China-new-sulphur-requirements-2015_12

 

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Care of lub oil

Lub oil is blood of the machinery; most valuable, so it requires utmost care. This is the only fluid in the machinery which needs to be supplied before starting without fail, rest all fluid, water, fuel etc, can be supplied once machinery started. Common problem of lub oil is contamination, it can be water, fuel, metal particle or in some cases some unexpected foreign particles.
Engine system oil- Usually oil remains in good condition if there is no contamination of water, fuel or foreign particle. Sea water or fresh water ingress from lub oil cooler is most common problem, in plate type cooler it can be through cooler gasket or sometimes through pin holes in cooler plates, nevertheless not rare. Pin holes are difficult to identify by naked eyes, it can be identified by ultrasonic measurement. In case plates are old or material is poor, this reason should not be ignored, and old plates must be inspected by ultrasonic. Other option is to replace plates if they are old, now a days, due to many OEM’s in the market, plates are no more expensive. In tube type cooler, which is very rare now a days, tube leak is most common source of water ingress into lub oil, the reason is again failure of tubes due to poor quality or material erosion.
Care of lubricating oil cooler – Onboard cleaning should be avoided as far as possible. Best practice is to carry out in place chemical cleaning or backwashing, replace gaskets after every cleaning and use professional company or experienced crew  to assemble cooler. Before putting the cooler in use, it has to be pressure tested.
Main engine sump and bedplate are separated by a rubber diaphragm fitted between them, this diaphragm takes care of movement between bedplate and sump.  This rubber diaphragm gets brittle and leaks over a period of time. It is prudent to replace the diaphragm every 10 years. Some times water is accumulated on the tank top and engine pit, if this diaphragm is old and cracked, water will find its way to sump.
New Microsoft PowerPoint PresentationSlide2.JPG

Water can pass through from tank top to engine pit, once engine pit is filled, it will enter to sump via damaged diaphragm. Diaphragm location is shown here.
MAN Engine – There is seal between fuel pump and camcase, very common now a days to have leakage through plunger and barrel due to reduced viscosity of Low Sulphur Marine Gas Oil  and Low sulphur fuel oil, fuel leaked off through plunger and barrel usually drains through fuel pump casing drain.  The drain to be checked and cleared regularly. There is sight glass fitted on the base of the fuel pump, it has to be kept cleaned and inspected every watch. the seal between pump chamber and camcase to be renewed whenever fuel pump is overhauled

Slide1Slide1

Drawing showing seal between fuel pump and camcase; source – MAN manual.
Lub oil filter failure – Improper maintenance of filter, poor assembly of it or old and damaged filters contribute to lub oil contamination.
Auxiliary engine – Medium speed engines are more prone to damage if system lub oil is poor. Common source of water contamination are; cylinder liner leak, cooling water pump seal leak, lub oil cooler leak, cylinder cover crack etc. Routine maintenance of cooling water pump, lub oil cooler, liner seal ring renewal during overhaul and finally regular crankcase inspection is key for preventing major breakdown due to water ingress. Other source of lub oil contamination is blow past; high liner wear and unbalanced units will cause blow past into the crankcase and cause high carbon content. Third major contaminant is fuel oil, this is caused due to leaky fuel pump and choked drain lines. It is prudent to keep the fuel pump channel clean and if pumps are leaking then replace or overhaul it.

Hydraulic system oil – this grade of oil needs highest standard of purity. Filters in hydraulic systems are one of the finest filters because of high pressure in the system and very fine (in micron) clearances. Hydraulic oil is used mainly in crane, mooring winch,  windlass and steering gear system, here  impurities are in the form of contamination and high Particle counts. On weather deck equipment, it is usual to have some water ingress in the hydraulic system through storage tank sounding pipe or breather pipe. Winch cover plates, if not properly tightened would alow water ingress into gear case. As per Viswa Lab reports  60% of the hydraulic oil samples received for routine lubricant  condition monitoring suffers very high particle counts (or) contamination.  Wear and tear of running part is another source of contamination, besides that rust and dirt in the system also caused contamination.
Care of hydraulic system oil – drain off condensate, keep the filters clean, magnetic filter to be used to prevent metal wear and tear going in to the system, proper maintenance of sounding and breather pipe are most common preventive maintenance on hydraulic system oil. Keeping storage tank and new oil clean is another key factor.

Metal particle in lubricating oil – this is after effect of contaminated lub oil. In some cases ,material failure of bearing or running gear is also a source of metal particle in lub oil.
Fresh lub oil – In general, keeping the storage tank clean and sounding pipe and vents secured are applicable for all grade of lub oil. In some cases water ingress has been found in the storage tanks through side water tanks or sounding pipes or vents. Regular draining of even freshly stored tank is also recommended to identify if these is any water ingress.

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ECA & CARB – Adaptation

From the 1st January  2015 onwards, vessels are required to comply with stricter sulphur limits within Emission Control Areas (ECAs), vessels are using Ultra LS Fuel oil or LS Marine Gas Oil. The vessel specific change over procedure and calculators are being followed to ensure compliance. But complying with CARB is little different than simple ECA. Vessel has to follow zero emission in port, this requirement has developed new methods to curb emission and there will be many more more developments in this field in coming year.

Cold ironing – The term Cold Ironing is old when coal fired iron engines used to be completely shut down and vessels were supplied with shore electrical power for cargo handling or other necessary services in port, in this way the iron made engine said to be cold ironed.
1. AMP – Alternative Maritime Power(Permitted in California). There can be any means of supplying power to vessel at berth, most commonly used method in California is through shore supply of high voltage (6600KV) to vessel through receptacle container on board.
Large container vessel, cruise ship operate at 6600Volt to 11KV power system, whereas most ships operate at 440 Volt systems. Some vessels has 50Hz system, and some has 60 Hz system. New vessels are fitted with suitable adapter to connect to the shore power. However existing vessels has to be retrofitted with suitable adaptation system, costing is approximately USD 200000 to 500000, few suppliers of these power adaptation system are ABB, Sam Electronics (now a part of Watsila), Schneider Electric etc. Since these HVSC containers are permanently loaded on one side or both sides, there are quite a number of cargo slots killed and losing revenue for shipowner.Slide3

  1. Aux Engine Exhaust collection and treatment (permitted in California) – If vessel is not fitted with shorepower adaptor container,
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AMECS barge for exhaust gas from Aux Engine

there is another option for shipowners. Vessel can trade in CARB ports, and run their aux power source, but they must use exhaust gas collection system. Advanced Maritime Emission Control System (AMECS) is approved for simultaneous emission capture from two exhaust stacks of a single ship, with independently verified test results proving 90% to 99% reduction of the particulate matter (PM), nitrous oxides (NOx), and sulfur dioxides (SO2) found in diesel exhaust. This system is fitted on barge and exhaust is treated on board barge. In case bad weather / swell or wind, we need to see how this will not get affected.  Source – AMECS

 

  1. Exhaust scrubber (Not permitted in California) – These  are fitted on board for  main, auxiliary engine, oil fired boiler. and water and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) based closed loop exhaust gas scrubber. Cost-saving solution (able to operate on HFO instead of expensive low sulphur MGO).Slide1
  • Open loop cleaning system – Sea water used
  • Closed loop cleaning system – Fresh water used with Sodium hypochloride.
  • Hybrid system – has facility of switching both to sea water as well as fresh water, vessel can trade in open sea or in fresh water.

Standard guaranteed SOx-reduction is 97-98 %, offering ships SOx-   emissions equivalent with 0.1 % sulfur in the fuel when using fuel with 3.5 % sulphur.  NOx-reduction is approximately 3…7 %, and PMI-reduction 30…80 %.Amount of sludge generated from scrubber is 0.1-0.4kg/MWh which is 10% less than the normal sludge, can be collected in normal sludge tank and disposed off as normal sludge to shore reception facility.

PureSOx from Alfa Laval – World’s largest scrubber for 21MW power engine is installed and in service.

  1. Shore power Barge (new source of shore power)– In Rotterdam recently hybrid LNG power supply barge has been introduced, this will be a key game changer in some ports without investing huge amount in port shore power infrastructure. This can be provided in port as well as in anchorage and in idle time these barge can supply electricity to factories along the coast.

New vessels– For newer vessels LSFO /LSMGO and HFO lines are completely segregated from bunker to transfer to service line, the regulations will be complied without any difficulty. Vessels planned for trading  in these area are fitted with AMP container adaptor on both side of the vessel, enabling them to berth on any side to connect to shore power.

Risk of non compliance –

Local, regional and national regulatory are very stringent about SOx requirements. There are strict reporting system introduced to ensure vessel once alongside follow the regulation. Authorities are checking;

  1. Log entry of fuel change over
  2.  Matching the positions and timing of change over
  3. Collecting sample of oil on engine inlet for  analysis.
  4. Checking of bunker delivery note.

Recently EU too has announced LSFO sampling for the vessels calling EU ports. As per Change over procedure crew is carrying out change over to LSFO/LSMGO to comply with ECA and CARB reregulation. However Sulphur content of oil at the point of inlet to engine cannot be ascertained due to internal behaviour of the fluid. California Environmental Protection Agency/ Air Resources Board has more than dozens of cases against shipping companies. These cases are either due to delay in complying the regulatory changeover of low sulphur fuel oil or  completely non-compliance of regulation. See the list of companies penalised by carb.

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