From the 1st January 2015 onwards, vessels are required to comply with stricter sulphur limits within Emission Control Areas (ECAs), vessels are using Ultra LS Fuel oil or LS Marine Gas Oil. The vessel specific change over procedure and calculators are being followed to ensure compliance. But complying with CARB is little different than simple ECA. Vessel has to follow zero emission in port, this requirement has developed new methods to curb emission and there will be many more more developments in this field in coming year.
Cold ironing – The term Cold Ironing is old when coal fired iron engines used to be completely shut down and vessels were supplied with shore electrical power for cargo handling or other necessary services in port, in this way the iron made engine said to be cold ironed.
1. AMP – Alternative Maritime Power – (Permitted in California). There can be any means of supplying power to vessel at berth, most commonly used method in California is through shore supply of high voltage (6600KV) to vessel through receptacle container on board.
Large container vessel, cruise ship operate at 6600Volt to 11KV power system, whereas most ships operate at 440 Volt systems. Some vessels has 50Hz system, and some has 60 Hz system. New vessels are fitted with suitable adapter to connect to the shore power. However existing vessels has to be retrofitted with suitable adaptation system, costing is approximately USD 200000 to 500000, few suppliers of these power adaptation system are ABB, Sam Electronics (now a part of Watsila), Schneider Electric etc. Since these HVSC containers are permanently loaded on one side or both sides, there are quite a number of cargo slots killed and losing revenue for shipowner.
- Aux Engine Exhaust collection and treatment (permitted in California) – If vessel is not fitted with shorepower adaptor container,
there is another option for shipowners. Vessel can trade in CARB ports, and run their aux power source, but they must use exhaust gas collection system. Advanced Maritime Emission Control System (AMECS) is approved for simultaneous emission capture from two exhaust stacks of a single ship, with independently verified test results proving 90% to 99% reduction of the particulate matter (PM), nitrous oxides (NOx), and sulfur dioxides (SO2) found in diesel exhaust. This system is fitted on barge and exhaust is treated on board barge. In case bad weather / swell or wind, we need to see how this will not get affected. Source – AMECS
- Exhaust scrubber – (Not permitted in California) – These are fitted on board for main, auxiliary engine, oil fired boiler. and water and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) based closed loop exhaust gas scrubber. Cost-saving solution (able to operate on HFO instead of expensive low sulphur MGO).
- Open loop cleaning system – Sea water used
- Closed loop cleaning system – Fresh water used with Sodium hypochloride.
- Hybrid system – has facility of switching both to sea water as well as fresh water, vessel can trade in open sea or in fresh water.
Standard guaranteed SOx-reduction is 97-98 %, offering ships SOx- emissions equivalent with 0.1 % sulfur in the fuel when using fuel with 3.5 % sulphur. NOx-reduction is approximately 3…7 %, and PMI-reduction 30…80 %.Amount of sludge generated from scrubber is 0.1-0.4kg/MWh which is 10% less than the normal sludge, can be collected in normal sludge tank and disposed off as normal sludge to shore reception facility.
PureSOx from Alfa Laval – World’s largest scrubber for 21MW power engine is installed and in service.
- Shore power Barge (new source of shore power)– In Rotterdam recently hybrid LNG power supply barge has been introduced, this will be a key game changer in some ports without investing huge amount in port shore power infrastructure. This can be provided in port as well as in anchorage and in idle time these barge can supply electricity to factories along the coast.
New vessels– For newer vessels LSFO /LSMGO and HFO lines are completely segregated from bunker to transfer to service line, the regulations will be complied without any difficulty. Vessels planned for trading in these area are fitted with AMP container adaptor on both side of the vessel, enabling them to berth on any side to connect to shore power.
Risk of non compliance –
Local, regional and national regulatory are very stringent about SOx requirements. There are strict reporting system introduced to ensure vessel once alongside follow the regulation. Authorities are checking;
- Log entry of fuel change over
- Matching the positions and timing of change over
- Collecting sample of oil on engine inlet for analysis.
- Checking of bunker delivery note.
Recently EU too has announced LSFO sampling for the vessels calling EU ports. As per Change over procedure crew is carrying out change over to LSFO/LSMGO to comply with ECA and CARB reregulation. However Sulphur content of oil at the point of inlet to engine cannot be ascertained due to internal behaviour of the fluid. California Environmental Protection Agency/ Air Resources Board has more than dozens of cases against shipping companies. These cases are either due to delay in complying the regulatory changeover of low sulphur fuel oil or completely non-compliance of regulation. See the list of companies penalised by CARB for violating regulations.